Influence of the Fragrant Essential Oils
Influence of the Fragrant Essential Oils’ on Psychophysiological State of an Individual
KONSTANTIN KOROTKOV, Ph.D.,1 PETER MATRAVERS Ph.D.,2 MOMMOH KENNET2
Objective: Evaluation of the influence of aromas of different essential oils on the psycho-physiological condition of people. To show by certain methods that smelling these oils will either have a stimulating, calming/ relaxing, or some other effect (physiological and/ or psychological) on a given individual. The eventual goal is to make a correlation between different tests and the clinical tests.
Design: All the participants were volunteers, average age 20. All experiments were conducted in one and always the same room of the Saint-Petersburg University ITMO (Russia). We have used essential oils made by Aveda Corporation (USA) and specially designed box for aroma testing. For the evaluation process we have used questioners and several types of equipment such as: EPC (Electrophoton capture or Gas Discharge Visualization – GDV) Camera Compact, Surface Frequency Meter (SFM), Heart Rate Variation (HRV) tester.
Results: Significant correlation can be observed both among the instrumental methods (EPC, SFM) and between the instrumental and the subjective evaluations. High correlation of the data produced by the SFM and EPC methods suggests that these methods allow independent registration of the influence of the factors under study, even though the working principles of these methods are absolutely different. The HRV (cardiorhythmogram) of the individuals under study did not reveal any dynamics that would unambiguously correlate with the conducting of the investigations.
Conclusion: Our experiments showed that perception of different odours depends strongly on human and his current condition, and no one can say that concrete odour will always have some definite impact on every individual. EPC method itself is good enough for registering persons’ reaction on different fragrances, though it is not new generally, in this field of study it is a novel method.
1 State Technical University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
2 AVEDA Corporation, USA
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Natural essential oils are commonly used in perfumery, food, pharmaceutical production and in aromatherapy. Synthetic essential oils are produced and used like natural essential oils, but have lower price. Modern chemical technologies allow the production of synthetic fragrance compounds that can be hardly distinguished by their odor from natural ones. It is well known that synthetic essential oils doesn’t have any biological activity as natural ones and also can result in decrease of total immunologic activity and even toxic effect1.
There are two main theories of fragrance influence on human olfactory receptors: chemical and wave theories1. It can be shown from the results of research2 that olfaction and sensitivity of human to different odors depends more from energetic (electron) state of fragrance compound atoms and less from its chemical nature. That is why EPC method3,4, as a very fast method of functional state evaluation of biological objects and some structural properties of materials and liquids3-5, was chosen for research of natural essential oils influence on human.
By the way we’d like to note that the Nobel prize in physiology or medicine in 2004 was awarded jointly to Richard Axel and Linda B. Buck for their discoveries of “Odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system”. So we can make the conclusion that this field of research is very important and essential nowadays.
The technique of Electrophotonic (EPC) bioelectrography allows the recording, from a living subject, of electron and photon emission stimulated by an electromagnetic field, as well as the acquisition of these data by computer image processing. The electric impulse on the camera plate stimulates biological subjects (or chemicals evaporated by this subject) and generates a response in the form of an excited gas plasma (that is why in physical terms this approach is known as Gas Discharge Visualization – GDV3,4). This plasma emits both light and other electromagnetic fields over a wide frequency band because of the short electrical impulse used (10 microsec). The emissions are directly measured by a charge-coupled device (CCD), the state of the art in measuring low-level light that is used in astrophysics and other scientific endeavors. The CCD registers the pattern of photons detected over time. These digital data are transmitted directly into a computer for data processing, and each image (named a EPC-gram) from the light emitted is stored as a graphics file. These two-dimensional images of the light are then used to calculate the area, emission intensity, density, fracticality, and other parameters. On the basis of the calculated parameters, experimental conclusions are drawn.
Reportedly the EPC has overcome the experimental obstacles of older forms of electrophotography. What were previously considered as confounding parameters (such as pressure, finger size, sweating, or changes in physical conductivity) in the older forms of electrophotography have been demonstrated by different researchers to be overcome by the new EPC method3,4. Researchers report replicability of findings across different experimenters, different cameras, and different countries6-14.
The EPC technique has been found to be effective in evaluating the state of individual human health, in monitoring of individual reactions to different kinds of training, and in studying the energy properties of liquids15-23.
The EPC system is certified by the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation as a medical technical device. These devices are being produced in Russia and in Spain.
Scientific researches in the field of fragrance influence on human have started several years ago. Since that time the obtained results were presented at the international conferences and published in different journals24-32. In this paper we are going to present
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our latest experimental results of investigation the influence of fragrant essential oils on psychophysiological state on individual.
PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS
More oils research: 2004 JAP oils